Until I read this article, I didn't realize that the Turkish territory that the Russian bomber supposedly intruded upon was Hatay province. That really does muddy the waters a bit. While the Turks do not view the territory as disputed and it has been recognized as Turkish by almost everyone for the last few decades, the Syrians do not recognize it as part of Turkey and Russia has not taken a clear position on the issue.
When I was in Syria in 2005, I bought a map of the country printed in Arabic. That map shows all of Hatay, including the city of Antakya, clearly in Syria (the wavy red line running from the East to the West near the top is the alleged Turkish-Syrian border).